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authorAndreas Schneider <asn@cryptomilk.org>2015-01-20 12:08:21 +0100
committerAndreas Schneider <asn@cryptomilk.org>2015-01-20 12:08:51 +0100
commit929868c691f43c58e5e7421390286c5a7aa0bec8 (patch)
treeb75de99714bf083009867f882619ef5e35d51460
parent06a0d8ff1cf017091788da045f958b532ca07be4 (diff)
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Update README.CodingStyle
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-rw-r--r--README.CodingStyle354
2 files changed, 354 insertions, 59 deletions
diff --git a/CodingStyle b/CodingStyle
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-Coding Style Conventions
-========================
-
-Coding style guidelines are about reducing the number of unnecessary
-reformatting patches and making things easier for developers to work together.
-
-You don't have to like them or even agree with them, but once put in place we
-all have to abide by them (or vote to change them). However, coding style
-should never outweigh coding itself and so the guidelines described here are
-hopefully easy enough to follow as they are very common and supported by tools
-and editors.
-
-The basic style for C code is the Linux kernel coding style [1] with one
-excecption, we use 4 spaces instead of tabs. This closely matches what most
-libssh developers use already anyways, with a few exceptions as mentioned
-below.
-
-To shorthen this here are the highlights:
-
-* Maximum line width is 80 characters
-
- The reason is not about people with low-res screens but rather sticking
- to 80 columns prevents you from easily nesting more than one level of
- if statements or other code blocks.
-
-* Use 4 spaces to indent
-
-* No trailing whitespaces
-
-* Follow the K&R guidelines. We won't go through all of them here. Do you
- have a copy of "The C Programming Language" anyways right?
-
-Editors
-========
-
-VIM
-----
-
-set ts=4 sw=4 et cindent
-
-For Vim, the following settings in $HOME/.vimrc will also deal with
-displaying trailing whitespace:
-
- if has("syntax") && (&t_Co > 2 || has("gui_running"))
- syntax on
- function! ActivateInvisibleCharIndicator()
- syntax match TrailingSpace "[ \t]\+$" display containedin=ALL
- highlight TrailingSpace ctermbg=Red
- endf
- autocmd BufNewFile,BufRead * call ActivateInvisibleCharIndicator()
- endif
- " Show tabs, trailing whitespace, and continued lines visually
- set list listchars=tab:»·,trail:·,extends:…
-
- " highlight overly long lines same as TODOs.
- set textwidth=80
- autocmd BufNewFile,BufRead *.c,*.h exec 'match Todo /\%>' . &textwidth . 'v.\+/'
-
-[1] https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/CodingStyle
diff --git a/README.CodingStyle b/README.CodingStyle
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..badd16f3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/README.CodingStyle
@@ -0,0 +1,354 @@
+Coding conventions in the libssh tree
+======================================
+
+===========
+Quick Start
+===========
+
+Coding style guidelines are about reducing the number of unnecessary
+reformatting patches and making things easier for developers to work together.
+
+You don't have to like them or even agree with them, but once put in place we
+all have to abide by them (or vote to change them). However, coding style
+should never outweigh coding itself and so the guidelines described here are
+hopefully easy enough to follow as they are very common and supported by tools
+and editors.
+
+The basic style for C code, is the Linux kernel coding style (See
+Documentation/CodingStyle in the kernel source tree). This closely matches what
+libssh developers use already anyways, with a few exceptions as mentioned
+below.
+
+But to save you the trouble of reading the Linux kernel style guide, here
+are the highlights.
+
+* Maximum Line Width is 80 Characters
+ The reason is not about people with low-res screens but rather sticking
+ to 80 columns prevents you from easily nesting more than one level of
+ if statements or other code blocks.
+
+* Use 4 Spaces to Indent
+
+* No Trailing Whitespace
+ Clean up your files before committing.
+
+* Follow the K&R guidelines. We won't go through all of them here. Do you
+ have a copy of "The C Programming Language" anyways right?
+
+
+=============
+Editor Hints
+=============
+
+Emacs
+------
+Add the follow to your $HOME/.emacs file:
+
+ (add-hook 'c-mode-hook
+ (lambda ()
+ (c-set-style "linux")
+ (c-toggle-auto-state)))
+
+
+Vim
+----
+
+For the basic vi editor included with all variants of \*nix, add the
+following to $HOME/.vimrc:
+
+ set ts=4 sw=4 et cindent
+
+You can use the Vim gitmodline plugin to store this in the git config:
+
+ http://git.cryptomilk.org/projects/vim-gitmodeline.git/
+
+For Vim, the following settings in $HOME/.vimrc will also deal with
+displaying trailing whitespace:
+
+ if has("syntax") && (&t_Co > 2 || has("gui_running"))
+ syntax on
+ function! ActivateInvisibleCharIndicator()
+ syntax match TrailingSpace "[ \t]\+$" display containedin=ALL
+ highlight TrailingSpace ctermbg=Red
+ endf
+ autocmd BufNewFile,BufRead * call ActivateInvisibleCharIndicator()
+ endif
+ " Show tabs, trailing whitespace, and continued lines visually
+ set list listchars=tab:»·,trail:·,extends:…
+
+ " highlight overly long lines same as TODOs.
+ set textwidth=80
+ autocmd BufNewFile,BufRead *.c,*.h exec 'match Todo /\%>' . &textwidth . 'v.\+/'
+
+
+==========================
+FAQ & Statement Reference
+==========================
+
+Comments
+---------
+
+Comments should always use the standard C syntax. C++ style comments are not
+currently allowed.
+
+The lines before a comment should be empty. If the comment directly belongs to
+the following code, there should be no empty line after the comment, except if
+the comment contains a summary of multiple following code blocks.
+
+This is good:
+
+ ...
+ int i;
+
+ /*
+ * This is a multi line comment,
+ * which explains the logical steps we have to do:
+ *
+ * 1. We need to set i=5, because...
+ * 2. We need to call complex_fn1
+ */
+
+ /* This is a one line comment about i = 5. */
+ i = 5;
+
+ /*
+ * This is a multi line comment,
+ * explaining the call to complex_fn1()
+ */
+ ret = complex_fn1();
+ if (ret != 0) {
+ ...
+
+ /**
+ * @brief This is a doxygen comment.
+ *
+ * This is a more detailed explanation of
+ * this simple function.
+ *
+ * @param[in] param1 The parameter value of the function.
+ *
+ * @param[out] result1 The result value of the function.
+ *
+ * @return 0 on success and -1 on error.
+ */
+ int example(int param1, int *result1);
+
+This is bad:
+
+ ...
+ int i;
+ /*
+ * This is a multi line comment,
+ * which explains the logical steps we have to do:
+ *
+ * 1. We need to set i=5, because...
+ * 2. We need to call complex_fn1
+ */
+ /* This is a one line comment about i = 5. */
+ i = 5;
+ /*
+ * This is a multi line comment,
+ * explaining the call to complex_fn1()
+ */
+ ret = complex_fn1();
+ if (ret != 0) {
+ ...
+
+ /*This is a one line comment.*/
+
+ /* This is a multi line comment,
+ with some more words...*/
+
+ /*
+ * This is a multi line comment,
+ * with some more words...*/
+
+Indention & Whitespace & 80 columns
+------------------------------------
+
+To avoid confusion, indentations have to be 4 spaces. Do not use tabs!. When
+wrapping parameters for function calls, align the parameter list with the first
+parameter on the previous line. For example,
+
+ var1 = foo(arg1,
+ arg2,
+ arg3);
+
+The previous example is intended to illustrate alignment of function
+parameters across lines and not as encourage for gratuitous line
+splitting. Never split a line before columns 70 - 79 unless you
+have a really good reason. Be smart about formatting.
+
+
+If, switch, & Code blocks
+--------------------------
+
+Always follow an 'if' keyword with a space but don't include additional
+spaces following or preceding the parentheses in the conditional.
+This is good:
+
+ if (x == 1)
+
+This is bad:
+
+ if ( x == 1 )
+
+or
+
+ if (x==1)
+
+Yes we have a lot of code that uses the second and third form and we are trying
+to clean it up without being overly intrusive.
+
+Note that this is a rule about parentheses following keywords and not
+functions. Don't insert a space between the name and left parentheses when
+invoking functions.
+
+Braces for code blocks used by for, if, switch, while, do..while, etc. should
+begin on the same line as the statement keyword and end on a line of their own.
+You should always include braces, even if the block only contains one
+statement. NOTE: Functions are different and the beginning left brace should
+be located in the first column on the next line.
+
+If the beginning statement has to be broken across lines due to length, the
+beginning brace should be on a line of its own.
+
+The exception to the ending rule is when the closing brace is followed by
+another language keyword such as else or the closing while in a do..while loop.
+
+Good examples:
+
+ if (x == 1) {
+ printf("good\n");
+ }
+
+ for (x = 1; x < 10; x++) {
+ print("%d\n", x);
+ }
+
+ for (really_really_really_really_long_var_name = 0;
+ really_really_really_really_long_var_name < 10;
+ really_really_really_really_long_var_name++)
+ {
+ print("%d\n", really_really_really_really_long_var_name);
+ }
+
+ do {
+ printf("also good\n");
+ } while (1);
+
+Bad examples:
+
+ while (1)
+ {
+ print("I'm in a loop!\n"); }
+
+ for (x=1;
+ x<10;
+ x++)
+ {
+ print("no good\n");
+ }
+
+ if (i < 10)
+ print("I should be in braces.\n");
+
+
+Goto
+-----
+
+While many people have been academically taught that "goto"s are fundamentally
+evil, they can greatly enhance readability and reduce memory leaks when used as
+the single exit point from a function. But in no libssh world what so ever is a
+goto outside of a function or block of code a good idea.
+
+Good Examples:
+
+ int function foo(int y)
+ {
+ int *z = NULL;
+ int rc = 0;
+
+ if (y < 10) {
+ z = malloc(sizeof(int)*y);
+ if (z == NULL) {
+ rc = 1;
+ goto done;
+ }
+ }
+
+ print("Allocated %d elements.\n", y);
+
+ done:
+ if (z != NULL) {
+ free(z);
+ }
+
+ return rc;
+ }
+
+
+Typedefs
+---------
+
+libssh tries to avoid "typedef struct { .. } x_t;" so we do always try to use
+"struct x { .. };". We know there are still such typedefs in the code, but for
+new code, please don't do that anymore.
+
+Make use of helper variables
+-----------------------------
+
+Please try to avoid passing function calls as function parameters in new code.
+This makes the code much easier to read and it's also easier to use the "step"
+command within gdb.
+
+Good Example:
+
+ char *name;
+
+ name = get_some_name();
+ if (name == NULL) {
+ ...
+ }
+
+ rc = some_function_my_name(name);
+ ...
+
+
+Bad Example:
+
+ rc = some_function_my_name(get_some_name());
+ ...
+
+Please try to avoid passing function return values to if- or while-conditions.
+The reason for this is better handling of code under a debugger.
+
+Good example:
+
+ x = malloc(sizeof(short) * 10);
+ if (x == NULL) {
+ fprintf(stderr, "Unable to alloc memory!\n");
+ }
+
+Bad example:
+
+ if ((x = malloc(sizeof(short)*10)) == NULL ) {
+ fprintf(stderr, "Unable to alloc memory!\n");
+ }
+
+There are exceptions to this rule. One example is walking a data structure in
+an iterator style:
+
+ while ((opt = poptGetNextOpt(pc)) != -1) {
+ ... do something with opt ...
+ }
+
+But in general, please try to avoid this pattern.
+
+
+Control-Flow changing macros
+-----------------------------
+
+Macros like STATUS_NOT_OK_RETURN that change control flow (return/goto/etc)
+from within the macro are considered bad, because they look like function calls
+that never change control flow. Please do not introduce them.